The sport of volleyball poses specific physiologic and mechanical stresses to the shoulder resulting in a spectrum of acute and overuse shoulder injuries. Common problems include glenohumeral instability, primary or secondary impingement, internal impingement, labral injuries, and suprascapular nerve lesions. A basic knowledge of the biomechanics in overhead throwing and volleyball maneuvers (such as blocking, setting, passing, serving, and spiking) can help in the development of appropriate training and rehabilitation protocols. Special emphasis must be placed on the knowledge of muscular patterns involved in serving and spiking, because they typically require a strenuous unilateral action of the dominant shoulder. Injury prevention and recovery is dependent on proper evaluation, training, treatment, and rehabilitation of the shoulder and surrounding joints that make up the kinematic chain. Current concepts in training and rehabilitation use routine range-of-motion and strengthening exercises and other techniques, such as open and closed chain exercises, eccentric strengthening, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), proprioception and kinesthesia drills, neuromuscular control exercises for instability, plyometrics, and isokinetic testing.