Current evidence is not strong enough to be able to confidently predict outcome after whiplash injury. There are some factors that have shown consistency across studies that may be useful as a preliminary guide only and not as directives for specific interventions. These include pain and/or disability levels, neck range of movement, cold and mechanical hyperalgesia and psychological factors of recovery beliefs/expectations, post-traumatic stress symptoms, depression, and pain catastrophizing. Further research is required to confirm and validate predictive factors identified in phase 1 studies.
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