aUniversity of Calgary Spine Program, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
bMcCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
cCombined Neurosurgery and Orthopaedic Spine Program, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
dDepartment of Surgery, Western University, London, ON, Canada
eDivision of Neurosurgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
fDepartment of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
gDepartment of Orthopaedics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, QC, Canada
hDivision of Orthopaedics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
iCanada East Spine Centre, Saint John, NB, Canada
jDepartment of Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
kDivision of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
lDivision of Neurosurgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
mCanadian Spine Society, Toronto, ON, Canada
The Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network (CSORN) is funded by the Canadian Spine Research & Education Foundation (CSREF) fund grant.
This study was approved by the Research Ethics Boards at each participating institution: University of Calgary, University of British Columbia, Western University, Dalhousie University, University of Toronto, Universitaire de Quebec, McGill University, Canada East Spine Centre, University of Manitoba, University of Ottawa, and the University of Alberta.
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Nathan Evaniew, MD, PhD, University of Calgary Spine Program Foothills Medical Centre, 12th Floor 1403 29 Street NW Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 2T9; E-mail: [email protected].
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