Alcohol abuse (AA) and alcohol withdrawal (AW), both belonging to alcohol use disorders, bring about vast health consequences, social issues, and financial burden in United States. This study aims to explore the relationship of AA and AW with perioperative outcomes following elective spine fusion surgery.
Summary of Background Data.
Large studies evaluating the outcomes of spine surgery in patients with AA or AW are lacking.
We used the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2006 to 2014 to extract records with a primary procedure of spinal fusion surgery. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess the association of AA and AW with in-hospital mortality, perioperative complications, cost and length of stay (LOS).
Among 3,132,192 patients undergoing elective spinal fusion surgery, the prevalence of AA and AW was 1.14% (35,833) and 0.15% (4623), respectively. Among the AA admissions, 12.90% of patients developed AW. The incidence of overall complications was 6.14%, 10.15%, and 33.73% in patients without AA, with AA and with AW, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, AW was associated with elevated risk of overall complications (odds ratio [OR]: 4.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.86–5.27), neurologic (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.62–4.12), respiratory (OR: 8.04; 95% CI: 6.62–9.77), cardiac (OR: 3.58; 95% CI: 2.60–4.93), gastrointestinal (OR: 2.31; 95%CI: 1.68–3.17), urinary and renal (OR: 2.68; 95% CI: 2.11–3.39), venous thromboembolism (OR: 3.06; 95% CI: 1.94–4.82), wound-related complications (OR: 3.84; 95% CI: 2.96–4.98) and in-hospital mortality (OR: 5.95; 95% CI: 3.25–10.90). AW was also linked to 40% higher cost and 85% longer LOS.
Both AA and AW are associated with adverse outcomes in patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery with more pronounced risks for AW. Aggressive management in perioperative period is required to improve outcomes in these patients.
Level of Evidence: 3