Retrospective analysis of a multicenter prospective adult spinal deformity (ASD) database.
Quantify postoperative improvements in pain, function, mental health, and self-image for different ASD types.
Summary of Background Data.
Medical providers are commonly requested to counsel patients on anticipated improvements in specific health domains including pain, function, and self-image following surgery. ASD is a heterogeneous condition; therefore, health domain improvements may vary according to deformity type. Few studies have quantified outcomes for specific ASD types.
Surgically treated ASD patients (≥4 levels fused) prospectively enrolled into a multicenter database, minimum 2-year follow-up, were categorized into ASD types according to Scoliosis Research Society-Schwab ASD classification (THORACIC, LUMBAR, DOUBLE, SAGITTAL, MIXED). Demographic, radiographic, operative, and patient reported outcome measures (NRS back and leg pain, SRS-22r, SF-36) data were evaluated. Preoperative and last postoperative values for pain, physical and social function, mental health, and self-image were evaluated, improvements in each domain were quantified, and domain scores compared to generational normative values. Postoperative improvements were also calculated for three age cohorts (<45 yr, 45–65 yr, and >65 yr) within each deformity type.
359 of 564 patients eligible for study (mean age 57.9 yr, mean scoliosis 43.4°, mean SVA 63.3 mm, mean 11.7 levels fused) had ≥2 yr follow-up. Domain improvements for the entire ASD population were 45.1% for back pain, 41.3% for leg pain, 27.1% for physical function, 35.9% for social function, 62.0% for self-image, and 22.6% for mental health (P < 0.05). LUMBAR, SAGITTAL, and MIXED had greatest improvements in pain and function, while THORACIC and DOUBLE had greatest improvements in self-image. Self-image was the most impacted preoperative domain and demonstrated the greatest postoperative improvement for all ASD types.
ASD patients demonstrated quantifiable postoperative improvements in pain, self-image, physical and social function, and mental health; however, improvements differed between ASD types. Further research is needed to understand specific patient expectations for ASD treatment.
Level of Evidence: 3