To evaluate conditional survival after surgical resection for spinal chondrosarcoma patients.
Summary of Background Data.
Survival estimates are usually reported as survival from the time of surgery, but survival probabilities can change over time. Conditional survival, which is a measure of prognosis for patients who have survived a defined period of time, may be more clinically precise and relevant. However, data on conditional survival for spinal chondrosarcoma patients after surgical resection are still lacking.
We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to identify 436 spinal chondrosarcoma patients who underwent surgical resection from 1994 and 2013. Kaplan–Meier analyses and Cox regression modeling were performed to evaluate prognostic factors associated with overall survival. Five-year conditional survival (i.e., probability of surviving an additional 5 years, given that a patient has already survived x years) was calculated as 5–CS(x) = OS(x+5)/OS(x). The effect of prognostic factors on conditional survival was also explored.
Four hundred thirty six patients were included in the study cohort. Overall, 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival were 92.8%, 79.1%, and 70.3%, respectively. Five-year conditional survival at 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery were 72.9%, 79.0%, and 87.5%. The overall survival rates were lower in cases of age more than or equal to 60 years, male patient, dedifferentiated subtype, Grade III tumor, tumor size more than or equal to 10 cm, distant metastasis, and radiotherapy. Conditional survival improved over time in each subgroup divided by age, sex, race, year of diagnosis, grade, tumor size, extent of disease (EOD), and radiotherapy. In addition, patients with the least favorable prognosis at baseline experienced the greatest increase in 5-year conditional survival over time (e.g., Grade I/II: 78.0%–89.7%, Δ11.7% vs. Grade III: 36.5%–66.6%, Δ30.1%; Localized/Regional: 72.9%–88.1%, Δ15.2% vs. Distant: 43.5%–74.1%, Δ30.6%).
Conditional survival for spinal chondrosarcoma patients after surgical resection improves over time, especially for patients with initial high-risk characteristics. Information derived from conditional survival analysis may provide individualized approaches to surveillance and treatment of spinal chondrosarcoma.
Level of Evidence: 4