The aim of this study was to determine whether major postoperative complications (“complications”) are associated with 2-year improvements in Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD) scores after scoliosis surgery, and whether complications and preoperative characteristics predict 2-year improvements in CPCHILD Total score.
Summary of Background Data.
Spinal arthrodesis can halt the progression of spinal deformity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP)-related scoliosis. However, these patients are prone to postoperative complications.
Using a multicenter CP registry, we identified 222 patients aged ≤21 years who underwent spinal fusion from 2008 to 2015 and had ≥2-year follow-up. We compared CPCHILD score improvement between 71 patients who had 1 or more complications (“complications group”) versus 151 who did not (“no-complications group”). Complications were deep infections, thromboembolic events, and cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and neurologic complications. Multiple linear regression was used to identify predictors of 2-year postoperative CPCHILD score improvement (alpha = 0.05).
At 2-year follow-up, the complications group had similar mean improvement in CPCHILD score across all domains compared with the no-complications group (P > 0.05). When stratifying by complication type, deep infection was associated with less improvement in CPCHILD Comfort and Emotions (P = 0.02), Quality of Life (P < 0.01), and Total (P = 0.04) scores. When controlling for Gross Motor Function Classification System subcategory, age, and body mass index, only preoperative CPCHILD Total score and postoperative deep infection (F[4, 176] = 14; P < 0.0001; R2 = 0.24) predicted 2-year improvement in CPCHILD Total score. Higher preoperative Total score and postoperative deep infection independently predicted less improvement in Total score.
Postoperative deep infection and higher preoperative CPCHILD Total score independently predicted less improvement in CPCHILD Total score. Other major postoperative complications were not associated with differences in 2-year postoperative improvements in CPCHILD scores across all domains.
Level of Evidence: 3