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Pedicle Stress Injury in Children and Adolescents With Low Back Pain

Ekin, Elif Evrim MD; Altunrende, Muhittin Emre MD

doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000003046
DIAGNOSTICS
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Study Design. A cross-sectional, retrospective cohort study.

Objective. To examine the prevalence of the pedicle stress injury, spondylolysis in children and adolescents with low back pain. And secondly, to test the hypothesis that these pathologies are associated with lumbar lordosis angle.

Summary of Background Data. The prevalence of the pedicle stress injury has not been investigated in children with low back pain. In recent studies, lumbar lordosis angle was associated with spondylolysis, on the other hand the pedicle stress injury was not investigated yet.

Methods. In this retrospective study, 789 consecutive lumbar magnetic resonance imaging under 18 years of age were reviewed between January 2015 and July 2018. Seven hundred magnetic resonances imaging among them were included in the study (mean age: 14.87 ± 2.41 yrs; range: 4–17). Prevalence of spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, pedicle stress injury, pedicle deformation, disc degeneration, and increased lordosis was investigated and compared in terms of sex. The relationship between increased lordosis and other pathologies was evaluated with risk ratio. Nominal variables were evaluated between the two groups using chi-square, Mann–Whitney U test.

Results. Prevalence of pedicle stress injury (12.7%), spondylolysis (8.7%), spondylolisthesis (4.1%), pedicle deformation (3.1%), disc degeneration (24%), increase in lordosis (17.4%) was found. Spondylolysis and pedicle injury were more frequent in males (P = 0.025, P < 0.001, respectively). Increased lordosis was more frequent in females (P < 0.001). Pedicle stress injury was frequently observed between 13 to 17 years and often an isolated lesion (69.6%). Spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, pedicle deformity were more frequent in increased lordosis (P < 0.001), whereas pedicle injury frequency was not found to be different (P = 0.997).

Conclusion. Pedicle stress injury is a common cause of back pain under 18 years of age, more common in males, and often an isolated lesion. No relationship was found between pedicle stress injury and increased lordosis, unlike other pathologies.

Level of Evidence: 3

To examine the prevalence of the pedicle stress injury, spondylolysis in children, and association with lumbar lordosis angle. Pedicle stress injury is a common cause of back pain under 18 years of age, more common in males. No relationship was found between pedicle stress injury and increased lordosis.

Department of Radiology, GOP Taksim Training and Research Hospital, Health Science University, İstanbul, Turkey.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Elif Evrim Ekin, MD, Department of Radiology, GOP Taksim Training and Research Hospital, Health Science University, İstanbul, Turkey; E-mail: drelifevrimekin@gmail.com

Received 24 January, 2019

Accepted 1 March, 2019

The manuscript submitted does not contain information about medical device(s)/drug(s).

No funds were received in support of this work.

No relevant financial activities outside the submitted work.

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