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Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Norwegian Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 in Low Back-related Leg Pain

Hasvik, Eivind MSc; Haugen, Anne Julsrud PhD; Haukeland-Parker, Stacey MSc; Rimehaug, Stein Arne BSc; Gjerstad, Johannes PhD§,¶; Grøvle, Lars PhD

doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002976
HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH
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Study Design. A prospective observational study with translation and psychometric analyses of a questionnaire.

Objective. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 into Norwegian.

Summary of Background Data. The different versions of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) have been important and influential tools for pain assessment. To more reliably assess qualities of both neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain, the Short-Form MPQ was revised in 2009 (SF-MPQ-2), including seven additional descriptors. No Norwegian adaptation of the SF-MPQ-2 has been performed.

Methods. A translation of the SF-MPQ-2 was performed based on established guidelines. Forward-translations were compared and discussed in an expert workgroup. A synthesis was achieved by consensus. A backward translation was reviewed and consolidated with the forward translations to confirm linguistic equivalence. A prefinal version was tested in eight patients, who were interviewed to evaluate acceptability and comprehension of the questionnaire. Minor changes were implemented. The questionnaire was externally proofread. The final Norwegian version (NSF-MPQ-2) was tested for content and construct validity and internal consistency reliability in a population with low back-related leg pain.

Results. The backward translation was in good accordance with the original version. The prefinal version showed excellent acceptability and comprehension in initial patient-testing. The NSF-MPQ-2 showed satisfactory content and construct validity, including responsiveness to change, and acceptable internal consistency reliability as measured by Cronbach's alpha. A confirmatory factor analysis showed poor fit for the established four-factor structure, especially regarding the neuropathic subscale.

Conclusion. The NSF-MPQ-2 showed excellent acceptability and comprehension, satisfactory content and construct validity, including responsiveness to change, and internal consistency reliability as measured by Cronbach's alpha. However, a confirmatory factor analysis raised concerns regarding the factor-structure in the present population. Until more evidence emerges for the four-factor solution we suggest the NSF-MPQ-2 should be used as a single measure.

Level of Evidence: 3

The Norwegian Short-From McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (NSF-MPQ-2) showed excellent acceptability and comprehension, satisfactory content validity, construct validity, and internal consistency reliability. A confirmatory factor analysis raised concerns regarding the factor-structure. Until more evidence emerges we suggest the NSF-MPQ-2 should be used as a single measure.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Østfold Hospital Trust, Grålum, Norway

Department of Rheumatology, Østfold Hospital Trust, Grålum, Norway

Regional Centre of Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation, Sunnaas Hospital, Sunnaas, Norway

§National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway

Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Eivind Hasvik, MSc, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Østfold Hospital Trust, PB 300, 1714 Grålum, Norway; E-mail: Eivind.Hasvik@so-hf.no

Received 14 March, 2018

Revised 24 October, 2018

Accepted 18 December, 2018

The manuscript submitted does not contain information about medical device(s)/drug(s).

No funds were received in support of this work.

No relevant financial activities outside the submitted work.

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