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Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire

Erol, Erkan, MSc, PT; Yildiz, Ayse, MSc, PT; Yildiz, Ramazan, MSc, PT; Apaydin, Umut, MSc, PT; Gokmen, Derya, PhD; Elbasan, Bulent, PhD, PT

doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002909

Study Design. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric analysis.

Objective. To develop the Turkish version of the Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire (FreBAQ-T) and to evaluate its psychometric properties.

Summary of Background Data. There is a growing interest in the role that the disturbance of body perception may lead to long-lasting pain problems such as chronic low back pain (CLBP). The Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire (FreBAQ) is a simple and low-cost way of evaluating disturbed back awareness in people with CLBP.

Methods. The FreBAQ was translated from English into Turkish using the forward-backward-forward method. One hundred four participants with low back pain completed the FreBAQ-T. The FreBAQ-T was repeated in 15 participants after 1 week to establish test-retest reliability. Although internal and external construct validity was investigated using Rasch analysis and Spearman correlation coefficient, respectively; reliability was evaluated in terms of internal consistency by Cronbach alpha and Person Separation Index.

Results. All items of the FreBAQ-T were found to fit the Rasch Model (chi-square 6.17 [df = 9], P = 0.723). The internal construct validity was good, overall mean item fit residual was −0.305 (standard deviation: 0.369) and mean person fit residual was −0.290 (standard deviation: 1.349). The reliability was good with Cronbach alpha of 0.87 and Person Separation Index of 0.82. When the test-retest was examined via differential item functioning by time, none of the items showed differential item functioning.

Conclusion. The FreBAQ-T is a valid, reliable, and unidimensional scale for patients with CLBP. This scale will allow assessing back-specific perception in the Turkish population with CLBP.

Level of Evidence: 3

The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire. A total of 104 patients with chronic low back pain were included in the study. The Turkish version of the Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire is valid and reliable.

Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey

Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Erkan Erol, MSc, PT, Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gazi University, Besevler, Ankara 06560, Turkey; E-mail:

Received 30 July, 2018

Revised 17 September, 2018

Accepted 28 September, 2018

The manuscript submitted does not contain information about medical device (s)/drug (s).

No funds were received in support of this work.

No relevant financial activities outside the submitted work.

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