A cross-sectional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study.
To classify and characterize endplate defects using routine lumbar MR images and to determine associations of endplate defects with Modic changes (MCs) and disc degeneration.
Previously, a cadaveric study revealed that endplate lesions were common and associated with back pain history. New in vivo approaches appropriate for clinical studies are needed to further this potentially important line of research on the clinical significance of endplate lesions, including their relation with MCs, disc degeneration, and back pain.
Using a MRI archive, 1564 endplates of 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women, mean age 58.9 ± 11.9 years) with the presence of MCs were retrospectively collected from April of 2014 to June of 2015. On the basis of morphological characteristics, a protocol was proposed to identify three distinct types of endplate defects, including focal, corner, and erosive defects. The location, size, and distribution patterns of various endplate lesions were characterized. MCs and disc degeneration were measured to examine their associations with endplate defects.
Endplate defects were observed in 27.8% of endplates studied. Greater age was associated with the presence of endplate defects. Focal defects were the most common (13.5%), followed by erosive defects (11.1%) and corner defects (3.2%). Defect types also differed in size and distribution patterns. Endplate defects and MCs had similar distribution patterns in the lumbar spine. The presence of endplate defects were associated with the presence of MCs (odds ratio = 4.29, P < 0.001), and associated with less disc signal intensity and disc height, and greater disc bulging (P < 0.05).
The three endplate defects identified on routine MR images appear to represent different pathologies and may play a key role in the pathogenesis of MCs. This classification system may facilitate clinical studies on endplate defects.
Level of Evidence: 4
∗Spine Lab, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
†Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Yue Wang, MD, PhD, Building 3-2, 79#, Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003, China; E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
Received 31 October, 2016
Revised 18 September, 2017
Accepted 29 September, 2017
Zhiyun Feng and Yuanhao Liu contributed equally to this work.
National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 81371995), 2015 Qianjiang Intelligent Program in Zhejiang Province, Science technology department of Zhejiang Province (2014C33192), and Medicine and health science and technology plan in Zhejiang province (2018ZD005) funds were received in support of this work.
The manuscript submitted does not contain information about medical device(s)/drug(s).
No relevant financial activities outside the submitted work.