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Reliability and Validity Study of the Finnish Version 2.0 of the Oswestry Disability Index

Pekkanen, Liisa, MD*; Kautiainen, Hannu, BA; Ylinen, Jari, MD, PhD; Salo, Petri, MSc; Häkkinen, Arja, PhD‡,§

doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181cdd702
Health Services Research

Study Design. Prospective clinical validation study.

Objective. The aims of this study were to translate into Finnish and culturally adapt and study the psycho­metric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) version 2.0.

Summary of Background Data. The ODI is one of the most commonly reported back-specific disability ques­tionnaires. It is widely used both in clinical work and in medical studies. To date, no validated Finnish version of the ODI version 2.0 has been reported.

Methods. The ODI version 2.0 was translated into the Finnish language. A total of 115 patients with back pain, referred by the primary care physician to the outpatient clinic of the department of physical medicine and reha­bilitation, were recruited for this study. The patients an­swered a questionnaire package that included the Finnish ODI 2.0, Back Pain Questionnaire for Visual Analogue Assessment (Million-VAS), Visual Analogue Scales of back and leg pain (VASback, VASleg), the Depressions Scale, and a question on their subjectively perceived health. The package was administered twice; 2 weeks before and at the arrival to the clinic.

Results. Reproducibility of the ODI was 0.90 (95% con­fidence interval [CI] = 0.85–0.94) and the internal consis­tency was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.81–0.90). Factor analysis showed that the ODI was loaded on 2 factors, which explained 51% of the total variance. In testing convergent validity ODI correlated with Million-VAS, r = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.64–0.84); VASback, r = 0.48 (95% CI = 0.32–0.62); and VAS leg, r = 0.41 (95% CI = 0.23–0.57).

Conclusion. The Finnish ODI version 2.0 proved to be a valid and reliable instrument that showed psychometric properties comparable with the original English version. Therefore, it can be used in assessing the disability among Finnish-speaking patients with back pain for both clinical and scientific purposes.

The Oswestry Disability Index is one of the most commonly reported back-specifi c questionnaires that is widely used both in the fi eld of clinical work and science. The aim of this prospective clinical validation study was to create a Finnish version of the Oswestry Disability Index version 2.0. The Finnish Oswestry Disability Index version 2.0 proved to be a valid and reliable instrument.

From the *Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Jyväskylä Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland

ORTON Foundation, Helsinki, Finland

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Jyväskylä Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland

§Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Liisa Pekkanen, MD, ­Keskussairaalantie 19, 40620 Jyväskylä, Finland; E-mail:

Acknowledgment date: April 12, 2009. Revision date: November 20, 2009. Acceptance date: November 23, 2009.

The manuscript submitted does not contain information about medical device(s)/drug(s).

Funds were received in support of this work. No benefits in any form have been or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this manuscript.

Supported by the Medical Research Foundation of Jyväskylä Central Hospital.

© 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins