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ISSLS Prize Winner: Integrating Theoretical and Experimental Methods for Functional Tissue Engineering of the Annulus Fibrosus

Nerurkar, Nandan L., MS; Mauck, Robert L., PhD; Elliott, Dawn M., PhD

doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31818e61f7
Basic Science

Study Design. Integrating theoretical and experimental approaches for annulus fibrosus (AF) functional tissue engineering.

Objective. Apply a hyperelastic constitutive model to characterize the evolution of engineered AF via scalar model parameters. Validate the model and predict the response of engineered constructs to physiologic loading scenarios.

Summary of Background Data. There is need for a tissue engineered replacement for degenerate AF. When evaluating engineered replacements for load-bearing tissues, it is necessary to evaluate mechanical function with respect to the native tissue, including nonlinearity and anisotropy.

Methods. Aligned nanofibrous poly-ε-caprolactone scaffolds with prescribed fiber angles were seeded with bovine AF cells and analyzed over 8 weeks, using experimental (mechanical testing, biochemistry, histology) and theoretical methods (a hyperelastic fiber-reinforced constitutive model).

Results. The linear region modulus for φ = 0° constructs increased by ∼25 MPa, and for φ = 90° by ∼2 MPa from 1 day to 8 weeks in culture. Infiltration and proliferation of AF cells into the scaffold and abundant deposition of s-GAG and aligned collagen was observed. The constitutive model had excellent fits to experimental data to yield matrix and fiber parameters that increased with time in culture. Correlations were observed between biochemical measures and model parameters. The model was successfully validated and used to simulate time-varying responses of engineered AF under shear and biaxial loading.

Conclusion. AF cells seeded on nanofibrous scaffolds elaborated an organized, anisotropic AF-like extracellular matrix, resulting in improved mechanical properties. A hyperelastic fiber-reinforced constitutive model characterized the functional evolution of engineered AF constructs, and was used to simulate physiologically relevant loading configurations. Model predictions demonstrated that fibers resist shear even when the shearing direction does not coincide with the fiber direction. Further, the model suggested that the native AF fiber architecture is uniquely designed to support shear stresses encountered under multiple loading configurations.

In this study, bovine AF cells seeded on electrospun nanofibrous poly-ε-caprolactone scaffolds elaborated AF-like matrix, resulting in improved mechanical properties over 8 weeks in culture. A constitutive model was used to characterize construct mechanics with time and, after validation, was used to simulate construct response under physiologic loading conditions.

From the McKay Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Acknowledgment date: October 17, 2007. Revision date: March 27, 2008. Acceptance date: May 19, 2008.

The manuscript submitted does not contain information about medical device(s)/drug(s).

This work was funded by NIH grant EB02425.

Address correspondence and reprints request to Dawn M. Elliott, PhD, McKay Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 424 Stemmler Hall, 36th Street and Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6081; E-mail:

© 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.