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Health Services Research

Development of an Index to Characterize the “Invasiveness” of Spine Surgery: Validation by Comparison to Blood Loss and Operative Time

Mirza, Sohail K., MD, MPH*†‡; Deyo, Richard A., MD, MPH§; Heagerty, Patrick J., PhD; Konodi, Mark A., MS; Lee, Lorri A., MD; Turner, Judith A., PhD**; Goodkin, Robert, MD

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doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31818dad07
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