Historical PerspectiveBernardino Ramazzini: The Father of Occupational MedicinePope, Malcolm H. MSc, PhD Author Information From the Liberty Safework Centre, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZB, Scotland. Acknowledgement date: November 26, 2003. First revision date: February 12, 2004. Acceptance date: February 17, 2004. The manuscript submitted does not contain information about medical device(s)/drug(s). No funds were received in support of this work. No benefits in any form have been or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this manuscript. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Malcolm H. Pope, MSc, PhD, University of Aberdeen Liberty Safework Centre, Foresterhill Rd, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZB; Scotland. E-mail: [email protected] Spine: October 15, 2004 - Volume 29 - Issue 20 - p 2335-2338 doi: 10.1097/01.brs.0000142437.70429.a8 Buy Metrics AbstractIn Brief Bernardino Ramazzini was born on October 4, 1633, in the small town of Capri located in the duchy of Modula, Italy. He is credited with establishing the field of occupational medicine during his lifetime. His major contributions came after 1682, when Duke Francesco II of Modena assigned him to establish a medical department at the University of Modena. He was installed in the title of professor “Medicinae Theoricae.” In 1700, Ramazzini was appointed chair of practical medicine in Padua, Republic of Venice, the premier medical faculty in Italy. In 1700, he wrote the seminal book on occupational diseases and industrial hygiene, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers). Although Ramazzini is perhaps most well known for his work on exposure to toxic materials, he wrote extensively about diseases of the musculoskeletal system. In particular, he warned of the problems of inactivity and poor postures inherent in some jobs. The seminal work in what was to become the specialty of occupational medicine appeared in 1700 by Bernardino Ramazzini and was entitled De Morbis Artificum Diatriba. Ramazzini marks the beginning of society’s concern with the well being and physical and emotional health of its workers. He had a broad understanding of work-related musculoskeletal disorders that is just as relevant today as it was in 1700. © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.