A randomized controlled design superimposed on treatment as usual was used to compare the effects of a cognitive-behavior intervention aimed at preventing chronicity with two different forms of information.
To develop a coping-oriented preventive intervention applicable in primary care, and to compare its impact with educational information.
Preventing long-term disability resulting from spinal pain has proved difficult. The information provided by health care professions and early interventions aimed at preventing long-term disability may be important, but little scientific evidence exists concerning their use.
A protocol for a six-session cognitive-behavior group intervention was developed on the basis of earlier research. The main focus was to prevent long-term disability by changing patients’ behaviors and beliefs so they can cope better with their problems. Comparison groups received either a pamphlet shown earlier to have an effect, or a more extensive information package consisting of six installments. All the groups continued to receive treatment as usual in primary care. There were 243 patients with acute or subacute spinal pain who perceived that they were at risk for developing a chronic problem. These patients were randomized to the cognitive-behavioral intervention or one of the two information groups. Because the aim was to prevent long-term disability, the key outcome variables at the 1-year follow-up assessment were sick absenteeism and health care use. Other variables were pain, function, fear-avoidance beliefs, and cognitions.
The comparison groups reported benefits. However, the risk for a long-term sick absence developing was lowered ninefold for the cognitive-behavior intervention group as compared with the risk for the information groups (relative risk, 9.3). Participants in the cognitive-behavior group also reported a significant decrease in perceived risk. In addition, the cognitive-behavior group demonstrated a significant decrease in physician and physical therapy use as compared with two groups receiving information, in which such use increased. All three groups tended to improve on the variables of pain, fear-avoidance, and cognitions.
This study demonstrates that a cognitive-behavior group intervention can lower the risk of a long-term disability developing. These findings underscore the significance of early interventions that specifically aim to prevent chronic problems. This approach might be applied to primary care settings.
From the Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro Medical Center, Örebro, Sweden.
Supported by the Örebro County Council and the Swedish Council for Work Life Research.
Acknowledgment date: August 20, 1999.
First revision date: November 10, 1999.
Acceptance date: February 21, 2000.
Address reprint requests to
Steven J. Linton, PhD
Department for Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Örebro Medical Center
701 85 Örebro, Sweden
Device status category: 1.
Conflict of interest category: 14.