Keynote Address for Primary Care ForumDisability Resulting From Occupational Low Back Pain Part II: What Do We Know About Secondary Prevention? A Review of the Scientific Evidence on Prevention After Disability BeginsFrank, John W. MD, MSc*†‡; Brooker, Ann-Sylvia MSc*; DeMaio, Suzanne E. MA, MBA*; Kerr, Mickey S. MSc*§; Maetzel, Andreas MD, MSc*§; Shannon, Harry S. PhD*∥; Sullivan, Terry J. PhD*¶; Norman, Robert W. PhD#; Wells, Richard P. PhD# Author Information From the *Institute for Work and Health, Toronto, the †Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics/Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, the ‡Population Health Program, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, the §University of Toronto, Toronto, the ∥Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, the ¶Department of Sociology, York University, Toronto, and the #Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. This review was originally commissioned by Liberty International Canada. It was prepared by the Institute for Work and Health, without prejudice to the public administration of Workers' Compensation in Ontario, for broad distribution in the public domain with the intention of improving the prevention and management of occupational back pain. Acknowledgment date: January 29, 1996. First revision date: August 12, 1996. Acceptance date: August 13, 1996. Device status category: 1. Address reprint requests to: John W. Frank, MD, MSc; Institute for Work and Health; 250 Bloor Street East, Suite 702; Toronto, Ontario; Canada M4W 1E6 Spine: December 15, 1996 - Volume 21 - Issue 24 - p 2918-2929 Buy Abstract This is the second of two papers that systematically review available scientific evidence on the causes of disability from occupational low back pain, and the effectiveness of interventions to prevent it after its onset (secondary prevention). This paper reviews the national history of how back pain and the risk factors for its extension into chronic disability, followed by a critical summary of intervention studies attempting to reduce the duration of this disability, and to evaluate the results. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.