The authors present a comprehensive state-of-the-art and critical review of the finite element models of the human cervical spine. They also focused on the developments in model construction (geometry generation), constitutive law (material property) identification, loading and boundary condition details, and validation, the most important phase. A data base of available experimental sources is also provided, which can be used by the modeler for validating the finite element model. The potential developments in finite element modeling of the human cervical spine are discussed.
From the Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, and the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI.
Supported in part by grants from PHS CDC R49CCR 507370, DOT NHTSA DTNH22-93-Y-17028, and the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center Research Service.
Acknowledgment date: September 8, 1995.
First revision date: January 3, 1996.
Acceptance date: March 14, 1996.
Device status category: 1.
Address reprint requests to: Narayan Yoganandan, PhD; Professor; Department of Neurosurgery; Medical College of Wisconsin; MCW Clinic at FMLH; 9200 West Wisconsin; Milwaukee, WI 53226