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New Anterior Instrumentation for the Management of Thoracolumbar and Lumbar Scoliosis: Application of the Kaneda Two-Rod System

Kaneda, Kiyoshi, MD; Shono, Yasuhiro, MD; Satoh, Shigenobu, MD; Abumi, Kuniyoshi, MD

Deformity
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Study Design. The Kaneda multisegmental instrumentation is a new anterior two-rod system for the correction of thoracolumbar and lumbar spine deformities. This system consists of a vertebral plate and two vertebral screws for individual vertebral bodies and two semirigid rods to interconnect the vertebral screws. Clinical results of 25 thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis patients treated with this new instrumentation were analyzed.

Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of the new anterior instrumentation in correction and stabilization of thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis.

Summary of Background Data. Since Dwyer first introduced the concept of anterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for scoliosis, anterior surgery has gradually gained acceptance. In 1976, a useful modification for the anterior spinal instrumentation, which reportedly provided means of lordosation and vertebral body derotation, was described. However, some authors reported a high tendency of the implant breakage, loss of correction, progression of the kyphosis, and pseudoarthrosis as the major complications. To overcome the disadvantages of Zielke instrumentation, the authors have developed a new anterior spinal instrumentation (two-rod system) for the management of thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis.

Methods. Anterior correction and fusion using Kaneda multisegmental instrumentation was performed in 25 patients with thoracolumbar or lumbar scoliosis. The average follow-up period was 3 years, 1 month (range, 2 years to 4 years, 7 months). There were 20 patients with idiopathic scoliosis (13 adolescents and seven adults) and five patients with other types of scoliosis, including congenital and other etiologies. All patients had correction of scoliosis by fusion within the major curve, and for 16 of the 25 patients, the most distal end vertebra was not included in the fusion (short fusion). Radiographic evaluations were performed to analyze frontal and sagittal alignments of the spine.

Results. The average correction rate of scoliosis was 83%. Over the instrumented levels, the correction rate was 90%. Preoperative kyphosis of the instrumented levels of 7° was corrected to 9° of lordosis. Sagittal lordosis of the lumbosacral area beneath the fused segments averaged 51° before surgery and was reduced to 34° after surgery. The trunk shift was improved from 25 mm before surgery to 4 mm at final follow-up evaluation. The average improvement in the lower end vertebra tilt-angle was 97% in those patients whose lower end vertebra was included in the fusion and 83% in patients whose lower end vertebra was not included in the fusion. Apical vertebral rotation showed an average correction rate of 86%. At final follow-up evaluation, all patients demonstrated solid fusion without implantrelated complications. There was 1.5° of frontal plane and 1.5° of sagittal plane correction loss within the instrumented area at final follow-up evaluation.

Conclusions. New anterior two-rod system showed excellent correction of the frontal curvature and sagittal alignment with extremely high correction capability of rotational deformities. Furthermore, correction of thoracolumbar kyphosis to physiologic lordosis was achieved. This system provides flexibility of the implant for smooth application to the deformed spine and overall rigidity to correct the deformity and maintain the fixation without a significant loss of correction or implant failure compared with conventional one-rod instrumentation systems in anterior scoliosis correction.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Scoliosis Research Society, September 13-17, 1995, Asheville, North Carolina.

Acknowledgment date: August 2, 1995.

First revision date: January 2, 1996.

Acceptance date: January 5, 1996.

Device status category: 2.

Address reprint requests to: Kiyoshi Kaneda, MD; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery; Hokkaido University School of Medicine; Kita-15, Nishi-7, Kita-ku; Sapporo 060; Japan

© Lippincott-Raven Publishers.