Human Lumbar Vertebrae: Quantitative Three-Dimensional AnatomyPANJABI MANOHAR M. PhD; GOEL, VIJAY PhD; OXLAND, THOMAS MASc; TAKATA, KOICHIRO MD; DURANCEAU, JOANNE MS; KRAG, MARTIN MD; PRICE, MARK MDSpine: March 1992 Original Article: PDF Only Abstract This study details the quantitative three-dimensional surface anatomy of human lumbar vertebrae based on a study of 60 vertebrae. The two lower vertebrae (L4 and L5) appeared to be transitional toward the sacral region, whereas the upper two vertebrae (L1 and L2) were transitional toward the thoracic region. Means and standard errors of the means for linear, angular, and area dimensions of vertebral bodies, spinal canal, pedicle, pars interarticularis, spinous and transverse processes were obtained for all lumbar vertebrae. This information provides a better understanding of the spine, and allows for a more precise clinical diagnosis and surgical management of spinal problems. The information is also necessary for constructing accurate mathematical models of the human spine. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.