Assessment of Patients With Low-Back Pain by Biplanar Radiographic Measurement of Intervertebral MotionSTOKES, I A F, PhD*,†; WILDER, D G, MS†; FRYMOYER, J W, MD†; POPE, M H, PhD†Spine: May-June 1981 - Volume 6 - Issue 3 - p 233-240 Original Article: PDF Only Abstract Author InformationAuthors Abnormalities of intervertebral joint motion including hypermobility, reduced mobility, torsional abnormality, and displacement of the center of rotation have been associated with degenerative change. However, measurement of these signs in plane X-ray films is handicapped by the three-dimensional motion and geometry of the spine. This study aimed to relate three-dimensional motion of the joints to their pathological state. We have used biplanar radiography to measure intervertebral motion during voluntary movements by patients with low back pain. Primary (or intentional) and coupled motions were measured by a refined technique, along with disc shear and facet joint motion. Abnormalities were found, especially in the “coupled” motions which were related to narrowed disc space, and to proximity to previous fusions. There was asymmetry of motion specific to joints with herniated nucleus pulposus. *From the Oxford Orthopaedic Engineering Centre, University of Oxford, England †From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.