Technical ArticleSulfur Distribution and Transformations in Everglades Agricultural Area Soil as Influenced by Sulfur AmendmentYe, Rongzhong1; Wright, Alan L.2; Orem, William H.3; McCray, J. Mabry2Author Information 1University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Dept., Gainesville, FL 32611. Mr. Alan Wright is corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected] 2University of Florida, Everglades Research & Education Center, Belle Glade, FL. 3U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Received March 9, 2010. Accepted for publication April 2, 2010. Soil Science: June 2010 - Volume 175 - Issue 6 - p 263-269 doi: 10.1097/SS.0b013e3181e16168 Buy Metrics Abstract Nutrient export from the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) has been implicated in causing sulfur (S) enrichment of Everglades wetlands. However, quantification of the S budget and transformations in EAA soils is inadequate. The objective of this study was to quantify various S fractions and investigate how elemental S amendment affects S dynamics in EAA soils. Reduced S compounds were not detected in soil before elemental S application. Organic S was the major form of S, comprising 87% of total S, followed by extractable SO4-S (13%). Extractable SO4-S for soils receiving 448 kg S ha−1 was 36%, 131%, 201%, and 270% higher than for unamended soils at 2, 6, 9, and 13 months, respectively. Elemental S was significantly higher in soils receiving 448 kg S ha−1 (482 mg kg−1) than in soils receiving 224 (111 mg kg−1) and 112 kg S ha-1 (55 mg kg−1) and unamended soil (0 mg kg−1) at 2 months after S application. Similar to extractable SO4-S, elemental S significantly decreased during the growing season. Sulfur application did not affect the sulfatase activity, however, mineralizable S increased concurrently with S application rate, and the effects continued throughout the growing season. This result was largely attributed to the oxidation of the applied elemental S. Our results suggest that large-scale S application in the EAA soils is likely to increase SO42− concentrations in soils, which poses a potential risk of SO42− export to sensitive Everglades wetlands. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.