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Training Cesarean Section

A Scoping Review

Zetner, Diana B. MD; Petersen, Iben MBBS; Konge, Lars MD, PhD; Thinggaard, Ebbe MD, PhD

doi: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000367
Review Article

Summary Statement This study is a scoping review that reviews the existing literature on educational strategies in training of cesarean section. A systematic search was carried out in relevant databases, identifying 28 studies for inclusion. Thematic analysis revealed the following training strategies: simulation-based training (team training, in situ training, technical training), simulators (low-fidelity simulators, high-fidelity simulators), clinical training, e-learning or videos, classroom-based learning (lectures, small groups), and assessment (assessment programs/interventions, assessment of learners). Simulation-based training provides a unique milieu for training in a safe and controlled environment. Simulation-based team training is widely accepted and used in obstetrics and improves nontechnical skills, which are important in emergency cesarean section. High-fidelity simulators are advanced and realistic, but because of the expense, low-fidelity simulators may provide a reasonable method for training surgical skills. The literature in training and assessment of surgical skills in relation to cesarean section is sparse, and more studies are warranted.

From the Copenhagen Academy for Medical Education and Simulation (D.B.Z., I.P., L.K., E.T.); University of Copenhagen (D.B.Z., I.P., L.K., E.T.), Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Copenhagen; and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (E.T.), Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.

Reprints: Diana B. Zetner, MD, Copenhagen Academy for Medical Education and Simulation, Capital Region, Blegdamsvej 9, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark (e-mail:

The study was performed by Copenhagen Academy for Medical Education and Simulation, Rigshospitalet, Capital Region, Blegdamsvej 9, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The Independent Research Fund Denmark and Ebba Celinders Foundation have made this project possible by financial funding of a research year in which this review was performed. Equipment was provided by Copenhagen Academy for Medical Education and Simulation, Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Online date: May 21, 2019

© 2019 Society for Simulation in Healthcare