Training Program for Orthopedic Residents in Forefoot Osteotomy Skills: Transference From a Simulator to a Cadaveric Surgical Scenario : Simulation in Healthcare

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Empirical Investigations

Training Program for Orthopedic Residents in Forefoot Osteotomy Skills

Transference From a Simulator to a Cadaveric Surgical Scenario

Ledermann, Gerardo MD; Kuroiwa, Aron MD; González, Nicolas MD; Silva, Isadora MS; Villa, Andres MD

Author Information
Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare 18(3):p 181-186, June 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000678

Abstract

Introduction 

An effective simulation program allows both the acquisition of surgical skills on the simulated model and the transfer of these skills to a surgical scenario. We designed a forefoot osteotomy training program and sought to determine the transferability to a cadaveric surgical scenario.

Methods 

Eleven orthopedic residents and 2 foot and ankle surgeons were included. A foot simulator was used. All residents were instructed on the surgical techniques of Chevron, Akin, and triple Weil osteotomies. Eight junior residents (trainees) were enrolled in a supervised simulation program. Baseline assessment was performed on the simulator with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) and the Imperial College Surgical Assessment Device (ICSAD). After baseline, trainees completed a training program and had a final evaluation of proficiency on the simulator and on cadaveric specimens. Three senior residents with no simulated training (controls) and experts were assessed for comparison.

Results 

All trainees improved from a baseline OSATS score of 11 points (9–20) to a final score of 35 points (33–35) in the simulator and 34 points (32–34) in the cadaveric specimen (P < 0.01). Compared with baseline, the ICSAD results improved in path length (391 [205–544] to 131 [73–278] meters, P < 0.01) and number of movements (2756 [1258–3338] to 992 [478–1908], P < 0.01). The final OSATS and ICSAD scores did not differ from experts (P = 0.1) and were significantly different from untrained residents (P = 0.02).

Conclusions 

Simulated training of Chevron, Akin, and triple Weil osteotomies in orthopedic residents improved procedural proficiency, enabling successful skill transfer to a surgical scenario in cadavers.

Level of Evidence 

II (Prospective Cohort Study)

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