An effective simulation program allows both the acquisition of surgical skills on the simulated model and the transfer of these skills to a surgical scenario. We designed a forefoot osteotomy training program and sought to determine the transferability to a cadaveric surgical scenario.
Eleven orthopedic residents and 2 foot and ankle surgeons were included. A foot simulator was used. All residents were instructed on the surgical techniques of Chevron, Akin, and triple Weil osteotomies. Eight junior residents (trainees) were enrolled in a supervised simulation program. Baseline assessment was performed on the simulator with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) and the Imperial College Surgical Assessment Device (ICSAD). After baseline, trainees completed a training program and had a final evaluation of proficiency on the simulator and on cadaveric specimens. Three senior residents with no simulated training (controls) and experts were assessed for comparison.
All trainees improved from a baseline OSATS score of 11 points (9–20) to a final score of 35 points (33–35) in the simulator and 34 points (32–34) in the cadaveric specimen (P < 0.01). Compared with baseline, the ICSAD results improved in path length (391 [205–544] to 131 [73–278] meters, P < 0.01) and number of movements (2756 [1258–3338] to 992 [478–1908], P < 0.01). The final OSATS and ICSAD scores did not differ from experts (P = 0.1) and were significantly different from untrained residents (P = 0.02).
Simulated training of Chevron, Akin, and triple Weil osteotomies in orthopedic residents improved procedural proficiency, enabling successful skill transfer to a surgical scenario in cadavers.
Level of Evidence
II (Prospective Cohort Study)