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Using Simulation to Teach Echocardiography

A Systematic Review

Rambarat, Cecil A., MD; Merritt, Justin M., MD; Norton, Hannah F., MSIS; Black, Erik, PhD; Winchester, David E., MD, MS

doi: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000351
Review Article

Summary Statement We identified 24 studies of high-fidelity simulation being used to teach echocardiography. A variety of study designs were used with outcomes ranging from reports of learner self-confidence up to improvement in organizational practice. Most studies were carried out in graduate medical populations, specifically in anesthesia trainees. The substantial majority of studies (91.6%) concluded that simulation has positive outcomes for teaching echocardiography. Future investigations would benefit from application of educational theory and should focus on demonstrating whether simulation can improve care delivery and patient outcomes.

From the Department of Medicine, University of Florida, College of Medicine (C.A.R., J.M.M.), University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries (H.F.N.); Division of Medical Education, Department of Pediatrics (E.B.), Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (D.E.W.), University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL.

Reprints: David E. Winchester, MD, MS, FACC, 1600 SW Archer Rd, Box 100277, Gainesville, FL 32610 (e-mail:

Supported by an unrestricted grant from the Miami Heart Research Institute.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

The work in this article was performed at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. All authors have met International Committee of Medical Journal Editors guidelines to be included as authors. All mail can be directed toward corresponding author.

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