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Toward Live Virtual Constructive Simulations in Healthcare Learning

Padilla, Jose J. PhD; Diallo, Saikou Y. PhD; Armstrong, Robert K. MS

doi: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000317
IMSH Research Summit Article

Summary Statement This article explores the combination of live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) simulations in healthcare. Live, virtual, and constructive simulations have long existed in the military, but their consideration (and deployment) in medical and healthcare domains is relatively new. We conducted a review on LVC— its current application in the military domain —and highlight an approach, challenges, and present suggestions for its implementation in healthcare learning. Furthermore, based on the state of the art in simulation in healthcare, we suggest that a combination of two simulation types (LV, VC, LC) at the time may be a simpler approach to the community at large.

From the Old Dominion University (J.J.P., S.Y.D.); and Sentara Center for Simulation and Immersive Learning, Eastern Virginia Medical School (R.K.A.), Norfolk, VA.

Reprints: Jose J. Padilla, PhD, 1030 University Blvd, Suffolk, VA 23435 (e-mail:

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

© 2018 Society for Simulation in Healthcare