Several simulators have been created as a tentative to improve the learning curve of the residents in neurosurgery and plastic surgery. Laboratory training is fundamental for acquiring familiarity with the techniques of surgery and skill in handling instruments. The aim of this study is to present a new simulator for craniosynostosis surgical training, specifically for the scaphocephaly type.
This real simulator was built with a synthetic thermo-retractile and thermo-sensible rubber which, when combined with different polymers, produces more than 30 different formulas. These formulas present textures, consistencies and mechanical resistance similar to many human tissues. The fiberglass moulds, in the shape of the skull constitute the basic structure of the craniosynostosis module trainer. It was possible to perform computadorized tomography images due to the radiopacity of this simulator and to compare the pre and post operative images. The authors present a training model to practice the biparietal remodeling used in the scaphocephaly. There are many possibilities to training: the skin incision; the subcutaneous and subperiostal dissection; the osteotomies; and finally, the skull remodeling with absorbable microplates. The presence of superior sagital sinus can simulate emergence situations with bleeding.
The authors conclude that this training model can represent a fairly useful method to accustom trainees to the required surgical techniques and simulates well the steps of standard surgery for scaphocephaly. This training provides an alternative to use of human cadavers and animal models. Furthermore, it can represent the anatomical alteration precisely as well the surgical emergence situations.
1. Marchac D, Renier D (1982) Craniofacial surgery for craniosynostosis. Little, Brown, Boston, p 125.
2. Hoyte DAN (1969) The role of the cranial base in normal and abnormal skull development. In: Persing JA, Edgerton MT, Jane JA (eds) Scientific foundations and surgical treatment of craniosynostosis.Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 58–75.
3. Babler WJ, Persing JA (1982) Experimental alteration of cranial suture growth: effects on the neurocranium, basicranium and midface. In: Dixon AD, Sarnat BG (eds) Factors and mechanisms influencing bone growth. Liss, NewYork.
4. Enlow DH (1986) Normal craniofacial growth. In: Cohen MM Jr (ed) Craniosynostosis: diagnosis, evaluation, and management. Raven, New York, pp 131–156.
5. Ford EHR (1956) The growth of the fetal skull. J Anat 90:63–72.
6. Hoyte DAN (1971) Mechanisms of growth in the cranial vault and base. J Dent Res 50:1447–1461.