This article addresses the necessary steps in the design of simulation-based instructional systems. A model for designing instructional systems is presented which stipulates that the outcome metrics be defined before the simulation system is designed. This ensures integration of educational objectives and measures of competency into the design and development process. The article ends with a challenge to simulator users and instructors: become involved in the integrated system design process by the daily collection of standardized data and working with the simulation engineers throughout the design process.
From the Department of Psychology (M.W.S.), Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA; Penn State University (W.B.M.), Hershey, PA; Hertfordshire Intensive Care and Emergency Simulation Centre (G.A.), University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK; Radboud University Hospital (T.A.), Nijmegen, The Netherlands; University of Calgary (J.C.), Alberta, Canada; Center for Patient Safety and Simulation (E.S.), University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (R.K.), Bethesda, MD.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Reprints: Mark W. Scerbo, PhD, Department of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23519 (e-mail: email@example.com).