Invited TechniquesTotal Shoulder Arthroplasty Historical Perspective, Indications, and EpidemiologyAblove, Robert H. MDAuthor Information University at Buffalo—The State University of New York Orthopaedic Surgery, Buffalo, NY The author declares no conflict of interest. Reprints: Robert H. Ablove, MD, University at Buffalo—The State University of New York Orthopaedic Surgery, 462 Grider Street, Buffalo, NY 14215 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Techniques in Shoulder & Elbow Surgery: March 2016 - Volume 17 - Issue 1 - p 5-6 doi: 10.1097/BTE.0000000000000078 Buy Metrics Abstract The first reported prosthetic arthroplasty of any type was a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty performed in approximately 1892. The modern era of shoulder arthroplasty began in the 1950s when Neer developed and reported on solid vitallium proximal humeral hemiarthroplasty implanted for fracture. Subsequent developments include modular components, total shoulder arthroplasty for degenerative arthrosis, and reverse total shoulder for rotator cuff arthropathy. Current trends have led to bone sparing humeral designs including resurfacing, smaller stems, and stemless implants as well as humeral components that can accommodate both a humeral head replacement and a socket for a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. The overall incidence of all types of shoulder arthroplasty has been increasing over the past twenty years. The incidence of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has increased at a greater rate than any other types of arthroplasty. Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty remains the standard of care for arthrosis and arthritis in the presence of an intact functional rotator cuff. Continued research efforts need to be directed at both material and design in order to increase prosthetic longevity. Educational efforts to increase surgeon expertise and research to help clarify the appropriate the number of procedures necessary to achieve surgical proficiency is needed. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.