St. George Shoulder Conference: Invited Review ArticlesExamination of the ShoulderRonquillo, Jonathan C. MD, FPOA; Szomor, Zoltan MBBS, PhD, FRACS; Murrell, George A. C. MD, DPhil Author Information Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, Orthopaedic Research Institute, St. George Hospital Campus, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia The authors, their immediate family, and any research foundation with which they are affiliated did not receive any financial payments or other benefits from any commercial entity related to the subject of this article. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: George A. C. Murrell, MD, DPhil, Orthopaedic Research Institute, Research and Education Building, 2nd Floor, 4-10 South Street, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW, 2217, Australia (e-mail: [email protected]). Received August 5, 2011 Accepted September 20, 2011 Techniques in Shoulder & Elbow Surgery: December 2011 - Volume 12 - Issue 4 - p 116-125 doi: 10.1097/BTE.0b013e31823a10c6 Buy Metrics Abstract There are over a hundred tests described for examining the shoulder. The aim of this study is to present those clinical tests that we have found by research and practice to be helpful when assessing disorders of the shoulder. In brief, we have found the key steps as follows: (1) stiffness is ruled out by checking passive external rotation; (2) evaluate external rotation and supraspinatus power and impingement signs for rotator cuff tears; (3) O’Brien’s sign for superior labral anterior posterior lesions; (4) modified cross arm sign/Modified O’Brien’s sign for acromioclavicular pain; and (5) instability tests if there is a positive history. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.