To analyze factors associated with the development of early and late multiorgan failure (MOF) in trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).
Spanish Trauma ICU Registry (RETRAUCI). Data collected from 52 trauma ICU between March 2015 and December 2019. We analyzed the incidence, outcomes, and the risk factors associated with early (< 72 h) or late (beyond 72 h) MOF in trauma ICU patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze associated factors.
After excluding patients with incomplete data, 9,598 trauma ICU patients constituted the study population. Up to 965 patients (10.1%) presented with MOF, distributed by early MOF in 780 patients (8.1%) and late MOF in 185 patients (1.9%). The multivariate analysis showed that early MOF was associated with: ISS ≥ 16 (OR 2.80), hemodynamic instability (OR from 2.03 to 43.05), trauma-associated coagulopathy (OR 2.32), and acute kidney injury (OR 4.10). Late MOF was associated with: age > 65 years (OR 1.52), hemodynamic instability (OR from 1.92 to 9.94), acute kidney injury (OR 4.22), and nosocomial infection (OR 17.23). MOF was closely related to mortality (crude OR (95% CI) 4.77 (4.22–5.40)).
Multiorgan failure was recorded in 10% of trauma ICU patients, with early MOF being the predominant form. Early and late MOF forms were associated with different risk factors, suggesting different pathophysiological pathways. Early MOF was associated with higher severity of injury and severe bleeding-related complications and late MOF with advanced age and nosocomial infection.