Tranexamic acid (TXA) administration is recommended in severely injured trauma patients. We examined TXA administration, admission fibrinolysis phenotypes, and clinical outcomes following traumatic injury and hypothesized that TXA was associated with increased multiple organ failure (MOF).
Two-year, single-center, retrospective investigation. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years, Injury Severity Score (ISS) >16, admitted from scene of injury, thromboelastography within 30 min of arrival. Fibrinolysis was evaluated by lysis at 30 min (LY30) and fibrinolysis phenotypes were defined as: Shutdown: LY30 ≤ 0.8%, Physiologic: LY30 0.81–2.9%, Hyperfibrinolysis: LY30 ≥ 3.0%. Primary outcomes were 28-day mortality and MOF. The association of TXA with mortality and MOF was assessed among the entire study population and in each of the fibrinolysis phenotypes.
Four hundred twenty patients: 144/420 Shutdown (34.2%), 96/420 Physiologic (22.9%), and 180/410 Hyperfibrinolysis (42.9%). There was no difference in 28-day mortality by TXA administration among the entire study population (P = 0.52). However, there was a significant increase in MOF in patients who received TXA (11/46, 23.9% vs 16/374, 4.3%; P < 0.001). TXA was associated MOF (OR: 3.2, 95% CI 1.2–8.9), after adjusting for confounding variables. There was no difference in MOF in patients who received TXA in the Physiologic (1/5, 20.0% vs 7/91, 7.7%; P = 0.33) group. There was a significant increase in MOF among patients who received TXA in the Shutdown (3/11, 27.3% vs 5/133, 3.8%; P = 0.001) and Hyperfibrinolysis (7/30, 23.3% vs 5/150, 3.3%; P = 0.001) groups.
Administration of TXA following traumatic injury was associated with MOF in the fibrinolysis shutdown and hyperfibrinolysis phenotypes and warrants continued evaluation.