There is recent evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition reduces post-ischemic injury and angiotensin II receptor inhibition may have similar effects. We therefore further charac-terized the role of ACE- vs. AT1-receptor inhibition on cell injury and temporal association of leukocyte endothelial interaction in response to ischemia-reperfusion. A combined in vivo and in vitro study comparing the ACE inhibitor enalapril and the AT1-receptor antagonist losartan was performed. The extent and temporal correlation of cellular damage (propidium-iodide staining), microvascular perfusion failure and leukocyte-endothelial interaction (leukocyte adherence) were investigated by means of intravital microscopy, after the application of hemodynamically ineffective doses of enalapril and losartan (5 mg/kg). A hamster dorsal skinfold model with a 4-h tourniquet ischemia was used. In vitro, the effect of enalapril and losartan on polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) adherence, as well as adhesion molecule expression (ICAM-1, VCAM-1), on hypoxia- or IL-1β-stimulated endothelial cells (HUVEC) was assessed using a PMN-adhesion assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Ischemia-reperfusion responses revealed a biphasic pattern, comprised of an early phase (30 min) of acute cellular damage and microvascular perfusion failure, followed by a late increase (240 min) in leukocyte adherence in vivo. Enalapril significantly reduced early cellular damage, microvascular perfusion failure, and leukocyte adherence in response to ischemia-reperfusion. Conversely, AT1 receptor inhibition with losartan proved to be ineffective at attenuating postischemic microcirculatory disorders (leukocyte-endothelial interactions, microvascular perfusion failure) and aggravated cellular injury. In vitro, enalapril reduced PMN adherence and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, while losartan was ineffective in the same respect. Following ischemia-reperfusion injury, ACE- versus AT1-receptor inhibition induce differential effects concerning the extent and temporal association of cell injury and leukocyte-endothelial interaction. The use of enalapril combines the beneficial effects of preventing cell and vascular injury immediately after reperfusion, with a delayed inhibition of the inflammatory response. Since the AT1-receptor inhibitor losartan did not mimic effects obtained with ACE inhibition, it is conceivable that the responses in ischemia-reperfusion are mediated by a non-angiotensin II-AT1 receptor-dependent mechanism.
Received 15 Apr 1999; first review completed 10 June 1999; accepted in final form 1 Sept 1999
Address reprint requests to Dr. Markus Guba, Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg. Franz-Josef-Strauβ-Allee 11. D-93042 Regensburg, Germany.
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