Globally, infecting with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a big issue today. The present study was aimed to assess the prevalence and year-wise trend of the HBV surfaces antigens (HBs-Ag), antibodies vs. HBV core antigens (anti-HBcs) while HBV-DNA in serum sample patients and replacement blood donors in Baghdad, Iraq.
During the period between 2017 and 2019, a total of 212 blood donors of ages 18–70 years were screened for HBs-Ag, anti-HBs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, and anti-HBc antigen–antibody (Ag–Ab) and HBV-DNA using real-time PCR.
A total of 110 (51.8%) of 212 blood donors were positive to all tests: HBs-Ag, anti-Hbs, anti-HBc and HBV-DNA. Forty-six (41.8%) were positive for HBV-DNA, HBs-Ag and anti-HBc, whereas 14 (12.7%) were positive for HBs-Ag and anti-HBc. Although nine (8.1%) blood donors were positive in real-time PCR (HBV-DNA loaded) with a negative result in ELISA. Forty one (37.2%) markers indicated a high number of inveterate or resolvable contagion. The total diffusion increment significance in 2017–2018, stabilized thereafter and started decreasing from 2018 to 2019 marginally. There is a high significance variance at (P < 0.01) while comparison among examined groups.
Significance and impact of study: the prevalence of HBV infection in 3 years is lower in Baghdad blood donors (51.8%) compared to other regions of Iraq. A high number of infections with no signs of HBs-Ag or viral DNA were recorded. Therefore, the inclusion of anti-HBc seromarker and DNA in the routine screening could isolate potential infectious blood units.