Helicobacter pylori causes the most common human bacterial chronic infection worldwide. The seroepidemiological studies show that up to 80% of people in the developing countries have an H. pylori infection history. Previous studies indicate the vigorous relationship between H. pylori infection prevalence and water hygiene status. This study aimed to detect the H. pylori virulence genes by direct PCR on water samples of Sanandaj city, located in the west of Iran.
Materials and methods:
Two hundred and fifty water samples were collected from water resources, including wells, Municipal water, river, and dam in Sanandaj city during 6 months from April to September 2019. The preparing stages of water samples was including primary centrifuge, filtration and final centrifuge. To extract potential bacterial DNA, the sediment of water samples were treated by using PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit (Qiagen Co.). H. pylori virulence genes were detected by using direct PCR and specific primers. The H. pylori 16s rDNA gene sequence of water samples were aligned and compared with other H. pylori 16s rDNA gene sequences registered in GenBank by using mega7 software.
The frequency of H. pylori genome in water samples was 23%, including 20%, 19%, 30%, and 36%, into tap, well, dam, and river water samples, respectively. The highest and lowest frequency rates were in well (62.5%, September) and dam water samples (0.0%, August), respectively.
The frequency of H. pylori virulence genes in Sanandaj city water samples was remarkable by using direct PCR method.