Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Swine flu a seasonal pandemic, symptoms, diagnostics and prevention

Mansoor, Sheikha; Maqbool, Irfanb

Reviews in Medical Microbiology: October 2019 - Volume 30 - Issue 4 - p 200–204
doi: 10.1097/MRM.0000000000000183

H1N1 often is cause of annual epidemics in world particularly during winters and is a seasonal pandemic that has been a cause of many deaths. The display of various strains of H1N1 always creates confrontation to public health and the scientific communities. The key behind the repeated epidemics is the transformation of the viruses to escape the immunity that is induced by former infection or vaccination. The pandemic was declared, by the WHO, as officially over in August 2010. The H1N1 virus has become a regular flu virus which occurs seasonally, and causes outbreaks in many areas of the world. This mini review discusses risk of this disease with pandemic potential globally, transmission, diagnostics and preventive measures to be taken by people and health institutes. A present it calls for alertness of the health systems worldwide and a need for active correlation between public and health institutes.

aDivision of Biochemistry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu

bDepartment of Clinical Biochemistry, Sher-e-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, India.

Correspondence to Sheikh Mansoor, PhD Student/Scholar, Division of Biochemistry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Tel: +91 7006981684; e-mail:

Received 17 January, 2019

Accepted 18 April, 2019

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (

Copyright © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.