Nanobody and aptamer as targeting moiety against bacterial toxins therapeutic and diagnostic applicationsGanji, Ali*; Islami, Maryam*; Ejtehadifar, Mostafa; Zarei-Mehrvarz, Ehsan; Darvish, MaryamReviews in Medical Microbiology: July 2019 - Volume 30 - Issue 3 - p 183–190 doi: 10.1097/MRM.0000000000000175 BACTERIOLOGY Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Infectious diseases are common life-threatening problems mediated by pathogen micro-organisms that cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, there is an increasing rate of the bacterial infections and emergence of the new antibiotic resistance in human societies. On the other hand, early detection of the bacterial infection present in biological samples suffers from extended time, high cost, and laborious methods. Therefore, there is a permanent need for robust diagnostic and therapeutic tools against bacterial agents. Recently, specific targeting bio-molecules, such as aptamer and nanobody have been appeared as specific and effective tools for biomedical application. They have excellent physicochemical parameters that make them superior to diagnosis and treatment of infectious agents achievable from diverse large libraries through systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) or phage display process, respectively. The present study provides an overview of nanobody and aptamer and their method description. Main contexts of article focus on the application of nanobody and aptamer as an inhibiting moiety for some bacterial toxins. Medical Biotechnology Department, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. Correspondence to Maryam Darvish, PhD, Medical Biotechnology Department, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 27 August, 2018 Revised 14 January, 2019 Accepted 23 January, 2019 Copyright © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.