Obesity as a multifactorial disorder has shown a growing trend, in recent times. Considering the importance of obesity as a potent public health problem, finding a novel preventive approach for the management of obesity seems crucial. In addition to genetic and environmental factors, alteration in gut microbiota composition and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. The aim of the current study was to discuss the role of Akkermansia muciniphila in the management of obesity.
In this review article, all articles indexed in the scientific database using the keywords A. muciniphila, inflammation, gut microbiota, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), overweight, and obesity were searched and discussed between 2000 and 2018.
Specific strains of gut microbiota such as A. muciniphila modify energy homeostasis in the body. In addition to degrading mucin and providing a desirable environment for the growth of other bacteria in the intestine, A. muciniphila participates in the management of obesity. Indeed, A. muciniphila increases the levels of Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and N-acylethanolamines as ligands of GPR41/GPR43 and G protein-coupled receptor119 (GPR119) receptors in L-cells, respectively, such that these receptors are involved in the various aspects of energy balance and appetite sensation. A. muciniphila also improves the low chronic inflammation observed in obese people through various mechanisms.
A. muciniphila supplementation and the use of other approaches such as prebiotics or food components that increase the abundance of this bacterium in the gut microbiota population could be a novel valuable approach in the management of obesity.