BACTERIOLOGYProbiotics and their increasing importance in human health and infection controlGhasemian, Abdolmajida; Eslami, Majidb; Shafiei, Morvaridc; Najafipour, Sohraba; Rajabi, AlidAuthor Information aDepartment of Microbiology, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa bDepartment of Bacteriology and Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan cDepartment of Microbiology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran dShahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. Correspondence to Ali Rajabi, Researcher of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. Tel: +98 03833330061; e-mail: [email protected] Received 28 January, 2018 Accepted 1 August, 2018 Reviews in Medical Microbiology: October 2018 - Volume 29 - Issue 4 - p 153-158 doi: 10.1097/MRM.0000000000000147 Buy Metrics Abstract Probiotics include a group of microorganisms with numerous effects acting as normal flora and masking binding sites of pathogens and inhibition of their colonization. Most common probiotic species include Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacilli and Saccharomyces boulardii. Some other beneficial properties of probiotics include cancer prevention, reduction of blood cholesterol and its absorption from the intestine (by bile digestion), stimulation and strengthen of the immune system, treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea, reducing inflammation in the intestines, and food allergies or eczema in children, improving the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and colitis, and remedy of vaginal yeast infections, and also antibiotics associated diarrhea, oral lesions, dental caries, and vaginal swelling. Furthermore, probiotics contribute to prevent viral infections, athlete's foot and fungal infections, and improvement of digestion and enhancing nutrition absorbance, inhibition of biofilm formation and increase in vitamins biosynthesis; especially those in groups B and K. Probiotics use in defined amounts has desirable outcomes. Side effects of probiotics are rare which occur among immunocompromised patients and pediatrics, thus care should be taken to avoid their side effects. Use of germ-free animals and study of symbiotic interactions among probiotics is possibly helpful for future perspectives. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.