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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a systematic review

Nazari, Mohammad Rezaa; Sekawi, Zamberib; Sadeghifard, Nourkhodaa; Raftari, Mohammadb; Ghafourian, Sobhana

Reviews in Medical Microbiology: January 2015 - Volume 26 - Issue 1 - p 1–7
doi: 10.1097/MRM.0000000000000023

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive facultative aerobic, nonmotile coccus that is an opportunistic pathogen in both humans and animals. A new window was opened for eradication of infections by bacteria with the discovery of antibiotics. Plasmid-borne resistance genes appeared soon afterwards. Currently, the distribution of antibiotic-resistant genes between bacteria via horizontal and vertical transformation and prescription of antibiotics has severely complicated treatment of infection. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a worldwide concern. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are now recognized as problematic bacteria. The current review aims to cover some aspects of MRSA and its distribution worldwide.

aClinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran

bDepartment of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Correspondence to Sobhan Ghafourian, PhD, Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, 6931619 Ilam, Iran. E-mail:

Received 20 April, 2014

Revised 5 September, 2014

Accepted 5 September, 2014

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