MEDICAL MYOCOLOGYMolecular diagnosis, epidemiology and taxonomy of emerging medically important filamentous fungiNagy, Elisabetha,b; Kredics, Lászlób; Antal, Zsuzsannab; Papp, Tamásb,cAuthor Information From the aInstitute of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, bMicrobiological Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, cDepartment of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Szeged, Hungary. Correspondence to E. Nagy, Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, P.O. Box 427, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary. E-mail: [email protected] Reviews in Medical Microbiology: October 2004 - Volume 15 - Issue 4 - p 153-162 Buy Abstract Relatively uncommon, but emerging filamentous fungal pathogens are of increasing clinical importance, mainly as the causative agents of opportunistic infections in the expanding population of immunocompromised patients. The classical diagnostic, typing and taxonomic methods for the investigation of some filamentous fungi have their limitations. However, rapidly developing molecular biological methods may provide the clinical microbiologist with valuable help. Molecular techniques with the potential for successful use in the clinical diagnostics of these fungi involve methods based on species-specific primers, in situ hybridization, RFLP of 18S rDNA, and sequence analysis of rDNA and/or ITS regions. PCR fingerprinting, mtDNA and genomic RFLP, RAPD, PFGE, sequence analysis of the ITS region and analysis of microsatellite sequences have been successfully used for their genotyping producing valuable data on their epidemiology. Molecular techniques have also proved to be very helpful by providing important new taxonomic information on these fungi which may facilitate the development of species-specific molecular diagnostic tools. The successes achieved in the publications reviewed suggest that molecular methods for the diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of these fungal pathogens should (and hopefully will) become routinely applied tools in clinical microbiology laboratories. © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.