ALTERNATIVE INTRAVITREAL ANTIBIOTICS: A Systematic Review for Consideration in Recalcitrant or Resistant Endophthalmitis : RETINA

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A Systematic Review for Consideration in Recalcitrant or Resistant Endophthalmitis

Velez-Montoya, Raul MD; Monroy-Esquivel, Luz MD; Ortiz-Guevara, Rocío MD; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo MD; Fromow-Guerra, Jans MD, PhD;  For the Mexican Endophthalmitis Study Group (Mex-ESG)

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Retina 43(9):p 1433-1447, September 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000003773


To organize, categorize, and create a quick reference guide for the use of intravitreal antibiotic alternatives to the standard combination of vancomycin and ceftazidime for the treatment of endophthalmitis.


A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The authors searched for all available information regarding intravitreal antibiotics in the last 21 years. Manuscripts were selected according to relevance, level of information, and the available data regarding intravitreal dose, potential adverse effects, bacterial coverage, and relevant pharmacokinetic information.


The authors included 164 of 1810 manuscripts. The antibiotics were classified according to their class into fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, glycopeptide and lipopeptide, penicillins and beta-lactams, tetracyclines, and miscellaneous. The authors also included information regarding intravitreal adjuvants for the treatment of endophthalmitis and one ocular antiseptic.


The treatment of infectious endophthalmitis is a therapeutic challenge. The current review summarizes the properties of possible intravitreal antibiotic alternatives that should be considered in cases of suboptimal response to initial treatment.

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