Men younger than 70 years rarely have a medical condition that would require comparable pharmacological or surgical treatment resulting in reduced action of sex steroids. However, serum levels of sex steroids in men fluctuate much less than in women, allowing for representative measures at random time points (provided circadian variation is considered). In line with the observation in women, the youngest male patients showed overall lower serum levels of free testosterone compared with controls. Of note, one of the youngest male patients had the lowest serum testosterone level because of pharmacological suppression (GnRH-analogon) after surgery for prostate cancer diagnosed at an unusually early age.
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