To identify the clinical characteristics and prevalence of neoplastic and nonneoplastic inflammatory masquerade syndromes (IMSs) in a tertiary center and determine the useful diagnostic tests.
A retrospective cohort study of consecutive 1906 patients diagnosed with intraocular inflammatory disease.
Of all patients initially diagnosed with intraocular inflammatory disease, we identified 116 (6%) patients with noninflammatory causes (neoplastic IMSs in 36/116; 31% and nonneoplastic IMSs in 52/116; 45%). In addition, 26 patients (22%, 1.4% of all) had drug-induced uveitis and 2 (2%, 0.1% of all) had paraneoplastic uveitis. The large B-cell lymphoma was the most common neoplastic IMS (78%), and the major clinical features were presence of cells and floaters in the vitreous (69%) and chorioretinal lesions (33%). The causes of nonneoplastic IMSs included retinal vascular disorders (38%), hereditary retinal diseases (31%), and degenerative ocular disorders (19%). The common clinical manifestations consisted of chorioretinal scars (27%), small white–yellow retinal lesions (17%), and leaking vessels on fluorescein angiography (14%).
Noninflammatory causes were determined in 6% of a large population with initial diagnosis of intraocular inflammatory disease. Although neoplastic IMS was commonly characterized by vitreous cells and opacities, most common definitive diagnoses in nonneoplastic IMS encompassed diverse retinal disorders.