Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is frequently associated with vascularized pigment epithelial detachment (v-PED). We observed a peculiar characteristic of v-PED characterized by small lacy folds of the retinal pigment epithelium, appearing as a wrinkled PED (w-PED) on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Our purpose was to describe the visual prognosis and number of intravitreal injections in w-PED compared with non-w-PED.
In this retrospective, case-control series, we reviewed retrospectively medical records of 52 eyes of 51 patients who were consecutively included between November 1 and 30, 2015 with a previous minimum 3-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were: neovascular age-related macular degeneration, affected with w-PED. Baseline characteristics, best-corrected visual acuity (BVCA), number of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections (anti-VEGF IVT) and maximal recurrence-free interval, that is, without intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection, were analyzed. A w-PED was defined as a v-PED ≥200 μm in height on SD-OCT imaging, presenting with at least 4 small lacy folds on the surface of the retinal pigment epithelium. Patients were compared with a control group, that is, patients harboring PED without wrinkle shape (non-w-PED). All patients had been treated by intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection of either ranibizumab (IVR) or aflibercept (IVA) using a pro re nata (PRN) protocol after three initial monthly treatments, with a minimum of follow-up of 3 years.
Two groups of patients were compared, w-PED (29 eyes, from 29 patients), and non-w-PED (23 eyes from 22 patients). In the w-PED group, mean BCVA evolved from 0.28 (±0.18) log MAR (20/40, range 20/25–20/63) at baseline, to 0.29 (±0.21) log MAR (20/40, range 20/25–20/63) at 1 year (P = 0.41), 0.34 (±0.26) log MAR (20/40, range 20/25–20/80) at 2 years (P = 0.49), 0.35 (±0.28) log MAR (20/40, range 20/25–20/80) at 3 years (P = 0.54). In the non-w-PED group, mean BCVA was 0.40 (±0.28) log MAR (20/50, range 20/25–20/100) at baseline and decreased to 0.48 (±0.46) log MAR (20/63, range 20/20–20/160) at 1 year (P = 0.19), 0.48 (±0.35) log MAR (20/63, range 20/25–20/125) at 2 years (P = 0.02), 0.60 (±0.38) log MAR (20/80, range 20/32–20/200) at 3 years (P = 0.002). In the w-PED group, the mean maximal documented recurrence-free interval was 7.87 (±2.94) months at Year 1, 13.5 (±7.52) at Year 2 and 14.78 (±10.70) at Year 3, versus 4.59 (±2.95) months at Year 1, 7.83 (±6.62) at Year 2, 8.57 (±11.18) at Year 3 in the non-w-PED group (P = 0.0004; 0.0101; 0.0168 respectively at Years 1, 2 and 3).
The evolution of v-PED after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection is still difficult to predict despite intense clinical research in this topic. In our study, we noticed that w-PED might be a phenotypic prognosis factor for better visual acuity and longer maximal recurrence-free interval.
Wrinkled Retinal Pigment Epithelium Detachment seems to be a phenotypic prognosis factor for better visual acuity, longer maximal recurrence-free interval, and less intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor.
*Department of Ophthalmology, GRC Macula, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal Créteil, Université Paris Est, Créteil, France;
†Clinical Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal, Créteil, France; and
‡Ecole Militaire Retinal Center, Paris, France.
Reprint requests: Eric H. Souied, MD, PhD, Department of Ophthalmology, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Créteil, 40 Avenue de Verdun, 94000 Créteil, France; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
None of the authors has any financial/conflicting interests to disclose.