To determine the age distribution of children with Coats disease and the impact of age at diagnosis on the visual prognosis.
Consecutive Coats disease cases aged 18 years or younger at diagnosis were retrospectively included. Clinical and imaging parameters were analyzed by comparative, correlation, survival, univariate, and multivariate statistics.
Ninety-eight patients were included. At diagnosis, mean age was 5.4 years ± 4.3 years (1 month-18 years). Younger age at diagnosis was correlated with more severe disease stage (P < 0.0001, r = −0.52), which was confirmed by survival analysis (P < 0.0001). Comparative analysis was performed between patients younger and older than 4 years at diagnosis. Leukocoria or strabismus was more frequent at presentation in patients younger than 4 years (P < 0.0001). Areas of peripheral nonperfusion and peripheral telangiectasia were more extensive at presentation in younger than older patients (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.039). Foveal sparing at diagnosis was less frequent in younger than older patients (2% vs. 23%, P = 0.002). The incidence of structural complications or enucleation during follow-up (mean duration: 5.9 years ± 4.5 years) was higher, and last-recorded visual acuity was lower in younger than older patients (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0009). Final logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution visual acuity was negatively correlated with age at diagnosis (P = 0.001, Spearman r = −0.42). Multivariate analysis indicated that disease stage (P < 0.0001), but not age at diagnosis (P = 0.07), independently influenced the last-recorded visual acuity.
Onset of Coats disease in children of younger age is associated with more severe manifestations, more advanced stage, and worse visual outcome. Age, correlated with disease stage, should be considered a prognostic marker in Coats disease.
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Lausanne, Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital, Fondation Asile des Aveugles, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Reprint requests: Francis L. Munier, MD, Department of ophthalmology, University of Lausanne Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital, Fondation Asile des Aveugles Avenue de France 15, 1004 Lausanne, Switzerland; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
None of the authors has any financial/conflicting interests to disclose.