To elucidate the development of the choroid and retina in children, and to explore changes in these during myopic shift.
A total of 118 children aged 7 to 12 years participated in this 1-year longitudinal study. Children underwent several examinations at baseline and follow-up, including cycloplegic refraction, axial length measurement, and swept-source optical coherence tomography. Thickness changes in the choroid and retina were compared among children with or without myopic shift.
Eighty-eight children (74.6%) developed a myopic shift after 1 year, and their central foveal choroid was significantly attenuated (P < 0.01). No significant change was observed in choroids of children without myopic shift (P = 0.83). Choroidal thickness decreased in all subfields during myopic shift, whereas the thickness of the retinal layers increased or were unchanged in most subfields. Axial length increase and central foveal choroidal thinning were associated with myopic shift (R2 = 0.157, P < 0.01), but axial length increase was not significantly related to choroidal thinning (P > 0.05).
Choroidal thinning occurs early in myopic progression. Axial length increase and choroidal thinning are independently associated with myopic shift.
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Axial length elongation and choroidal thinning are independently associated with myopic shift. Choroidal thinning precedes retinal thinning in the early stage of myopic progression.
*Department of Preventative Ophthalmology, Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center, Shanghai Eye Hospital, Shanghai, China;
†Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China;
‡Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, Florida;
§Jiading Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Shanghai, China; and
¶Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
Reprint requests: Xiangui He, PhD, Department of Preventative Ophthalmology, Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center, Shanghai Eye Hospital, Shanghai, China 200040; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China for Young Staff (Grant No. 81402695). Three-year Action Program of Shanghai Municipality for Strengthening the Construction of the Public Health System (2015–2017) (Grant No. GWIV-13.2). Shanghai Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 15ZR1438400). Key Discipline of Public Health—Eye health in Shanghai (Grant No. 15GWZK0601). Overseas High-end Research Team—Eye health in Shanghai (Grant No. GWTD2015S08). China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201506230096).
None of the authors has any conflicting interests to disclose.