To investigate the vascular remodeling of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-angiography (OCTA) in full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery.
This retrospective, observational case series included 33 eyes of 33 patients with FTMH who underwent epiretinal membrane removal. Data were collected on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), structural B-scan OCT, and OCTA preoperatively and at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. OCTA was used to assess the retinal vascular density (VD) of the superficial vascular plexus (SVP) and deep vascular plexus (DVP). VD was assessed using the early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) grid for the whole, inner, and outer grids.
A statistically significant correlation was found between the VD (whole, inner, and outer grids) of the SVP only from baseline to 1 month postoperatively (P<0.001). Similarly, VD was correlated from baseline to 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively to the whole (P<0.0005, F=23.22), inner (P<0.0005, F=28.23), and outer ETDRS grids of DVP (P=0.033, F=3.49). BCVA and VD were significantly correlated with SVP and DVP at baseline and 6 months (P<0.05, all correlations). The most significant correlation was observed at 6 months between BCVA and DVP in the whole, inner, and outer ETDRS grids (P<0.001).
SVP and DVP are affected by FTMH, with the most significant effects being on the DVP. FTMH surgery leads to an improvement in the BCVA in many eyes and the restoration of the VD, especially of the DVP.