To evaluate clinical features and manifestations of Eales disease and the efficacy of different interventions.
The databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Ovid from inception until February 2021 were searched. Pooled analyses included 1) presenting features, 2) symptoms and signs, and 3) postoperative vision outcomes and complications. Statistical analyses were conducted with R software version 3.6.3.
Forty-seven studies involving 3,557 patients and 4,959 eyes were included. The pooling results showed that Eales disease was male dominated (94%), bilateral involvement (64%), and mainly occurred in adolescents. Approximately 83% of patients were positive in Mantoux test, and 31% of patients have vitreous tap polymerase chain reaction positive for tuberculosis genome. More than half of the patients had decreased vision at the first clinic visit. The common signs of Eales disease included sclerotic vessels (83%), neovascularization of retina elsewhere (64%) and periphlebitis (51%). Macular changes could be detected in 24% of patients. The most common complication was vitreous hemorrhage, followed by cataracts and retinal detachment. Photocoagulation was directed at nonperfusion or neovascularization areas, with a decrease in the incidence of later pars plana vitrectomy (19%). Anti–vascular endothelial growth factor treatment was suggested for vitreous hemorrhage, which could achieve high visual acuity improvement rate (82%) while increasing the possibility of retinal detachment (18%). Pars plana vitrectomy was indicated in cases with persistent vitreous hemorrhage or retinal detachment, with 56% of patients obtaining visual improvement. Still, 17% of patients needed a second pars plana vitrectomy, mainly because of recurrent vitreous hemorrhage or retinal detachment.
Eales disease most commonly affects young men. It has diverse clinical features, and management should be based on the progression of the disease.