To evaluate vascular density (VD), fractal dimension, and skeletal density on optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes with idiopathic foveal hypoplasia (IFH).
Patients presenting with IFH to Creteil University Eye Clinic between January 2015 and October 2018 and age-matched healthy controls were retrospectively evaluated. Vascular density, skeletal density, and fractal dimension analyses were computed on optical coherence tomography angiography superficial capillary plexa (SCP) and deep capillary plexa (DCP) images on the whole image using a custom algorithm. Vascular density on the central 1 mm2 and the peripheral 8 mm2 for the two groups was performed.
Thirty-six eyes of 21 patients (18 eyes with IFH and 18 control eyes) were included. A decrease of VD at the level of the SCP and DCP was found in eyes with IFH compared with healthy control eyes (P = 0.005 for VD at the level of the SCP and P = 0.003 for VD at the level of the DCP, respectively). On the central 1 mm2, VD was decreased in healthy eyes (32.3% ± 4.8) at the level of the SCP compared to IFH eyes (55.6% ± 46.3) (P < 0.001). Skeletal density was decreased in IFH eyes in both SCP and DCP (P =< 0.001). Fractal dimension was lower in IFH eyes in both SCP and DCP (P < 0.001).
Vascular density, skeletal density, and fractal dimension are reduced at the level of SCP and DCP in patients with IFH compared with controls, reflecting a particular anatomical and vascular organization. Quantitative analysis using optical coherence tomography angiography could help to evaluate the severity of IFH.